Pain Management
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Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)
Heel pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, a condition that is sometimes also called heel spur syndrome when a spur is present. Heel pain may also be due to other causes, such as a stress fracture, tendonitis, arthritis, nerve irritation, or, rarely, a cyst.
What Is Plantar Fasciitis?
Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the band of tissue (the plantar fascia) that extends from the heel to the toes. In this condition, the fascia first becomes irritated and then inflamed, resulting in heel pain.
The most common cause of plantar fasciitis relates to faulty structure of the foot. Wearing non-supportive footwear on hard, flat surfaces puts abnormal strain on the plantar fascia and can also lead to plantar fasciitis. This is particularly evident when one’s job requires long hours on the feet. Obesity may also contribute to plantar fasciitis.
The symptoms of plantar fasciitis are:
Pain on the bottom of the heel
Pain in the arch of the foot
Pain that is usually worse upon arising
Pain that increases over a period of months
People with plantar fasciitis often describe the pain as worse when they get up in the morning or after they’ve been sitting for long periods of time. After a few minutes of walking the pain decreases, because walking stretches the fascia. For some people the pain subsides but returns after spending long periods of time on their feet.
Non-Surgical Treatment
Stretching exercises. Exercises that stretch out the calf muscles help ease pain and assist with recovery.
Avoid going barefoot. When you walk without shoes, you put undue strain and stress on your plantar fascia.
Limit activities. Cut down on extended physical activities to give your heel a rest.
Shoe modifications. Wearing supportive shoes that have good arch support and a heel  cushion reduces stress on the plantar fascia.
Medications. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 
Orthotic devices. Custom orthotic devices that fit into your shoe help correct the underlying structural abnormalities causing the plantar fasciitis.
Physical therapy. Exercises and other physical therapy measures may be used to help provide relief 
Injection therapy.  corticosteroid injections are used to help reduce the inflammation and relieve pain.
Long-term Care
No matter what kind of treatment you undergo for plantar fasciitis, the underlying causes that led to this condition may remain. Therefore, you will need to continue with preventive measures. Wearing supportive shoes, stretching, and using custom orthotic devices are the mainstay of long-term treatment for plantar fasciitis.