Pain Management
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Peripheral Nerve Block 
Peripheral nerve blocks are used in the pain relief clinic and operating theatre to block pain in the following ways:-
* Help avoid general anaesthesia during surgery.
* Acute pain control for painful conditions like fractured ribs, fractured hips etc.
* Treat Neuralgic pain caused by an injury / disease process affecting the peripheral nervous system.
* Nerve pain caused by cancer. 
* Peripheral Neuropathy - neuralgic pain caused by a number of disease processes / toxins which affect the function of different components of peripheral nerves.
* Entrapment Neuropathy - neuralgic pain caused by peripheral nerves being trapped by different anatomical structures in the body.
* Post Traumatic Neuropathy - neuralgic pain which comes on after trauma or surgery. 
* Post Herpetic Neuralgia - neuralgia which arises due to damage to the peripheral and central nervous system by the herpes virus.
* Phantom Limb Pain - neuralgia which comes on following traumatic or surgical amputation of a limb.
The term nerve block can mean a number of different things. In general it involves doing something to a nerve that alters the way in which it able to transmit painful signals - this is called a conduction block and is a form of neuromodulation. Nerve blocks can be short or long term depending on which technique is used.
Following techniques are commonly used:-
* Local anaesthetic peripheral nerve injection
-- This gives a relatively short length of action, but can be useful in helping to diagnose the cause of the pain.
-- If repeated several times, some patients notice a significant reduction in their neuralgic pain which outlasts the theoretical length of action of the local anaesthetic.
* Local anaesthetic peripheral neuroma injection
-- When a nerve is severed, it tries to reconnect with the other severed end but is not able to. The result is a benign nerve growth (neuroma ) which looks like the shape of a piece of broccoli.
-- Neuroma's are more common after trauma, surgery, and amputation and are sensitive to direct pressure. They fire off electrically in a totally random way causing peripheral neuralgic pain.
-- Their activity can sometimes be dampened down by directly applying local anaesthetic around them an several occasions.
* Radiofrequency techniques (RF)
-- Application of a high frequency electrical signal to a nerve, causing nerve coagulation and disruption (rhizotomy) with permanent interruption of pain signal conduction.
* Neurolytic peripheral nerve injection
-- This technique is usually reserved for those patients with terminal conditions like cancer, and who are close to the end of their life.
-- Nerve destructive substances like phenol or absolute alcohol are applied directly to the nerves which supply the part of the body responsible for causing the pain.